Technical Documents Library

The Graham Technical Library contains articles developed by Graham Corporation for publication in various magazines and technical seminar presentations. The articles are organized in three categories; heat transfer, vacuum equipment, and steam surface condensers.

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Description: Graham Manufacturing makes coiled-tube heat transfer equipment (Heliflow heat exchangers) which is frequently utilized as cryogenic vaporizers, with 80% of this service dedicated to liquid nitrogen. As a result of this testing, an analytical formulation for predicting boiling heat transfer rates in coiled-tube heat exchangers has been developed.
Description: Plate heat exchangers may be selected for their high thermal efficiency and minimum capital investment. Spiral heat exchangers, on the other hand, are turned to for their ability to effectively handle fluids containing solids and fibers, similar to those encountered in wastewater treatment plants.
Description: Helically coiled exchangers offer certain advantages. Compact size provides a distinct benefit. Higher film coefficients and more effective use of available pressure drop result in efficient and less-expensive designs. True counter-current flow design.
Description: Pressurized air operated ejectors in applications to replace other types of vacuum equipment.
Description: Low oxygen levels for deaerated surface condenser condensate for use in cold feedwater for heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) systems in the combined cycle cogeneration power plants.
Description: Combined vacuum deaerator and surface condenser with enhanced venting equipment improves efficiency of power plant by extracting energy from heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) flue gas and low oxygen levels of feedwater for combined cycle cogeneration power plants.
Description: Steam jet ejector and liquid ring vacuum pump hybrid gas removal system for steam turbine generator and surface condenser venting of non-condensable gases in a Geothermal power plant system.
Description: DO2 condenser can deaearate dissolved oxygen to low levels along with enhanced venting gas removal system in a steam turbine and condenser condensate for feedwater to HRSG in a combined cycle cogeneration power plant.
Description: Inadequate venting equipment retains air in the condenser, which may raise the condenser pressure and will increase the absorption of oxygen in the condensate. A hybrid system which will permit condenser operation at low absolute pressure and will reduce dissolved oxygen in the condensate is described.
Description: Adequate venting equipment sizing for part load, off design steam turbine and steam surface condenser design as studied by EPRI.  This includes steam ejectors and liquid ring pumps used in the gas removal venting equipment.
Description: System required for low oxygen levels for steam surface condenser condensate feedwater used in combined cycle cogeneration power plant.   An enhanced venting system ensuring that whatever noncondensible gases are released will be removed and which maintains a low air partial pressure within the condenser
Description: Troubleshooting steam surface condenser gas removal or air leakage venting system.  This includes steam ejectors, condensers and liquid ring pumps.  Checklist of troubleshooting steps to take for proper operation
Description: Comparison of air cooled condensers vs. water cooled condensers, advantages and disadvantages of each type of condenser
Description: Asymmetric plate heat exchangers allow independent optimization of both fluids for maximum thermal efficiency and economy.  Differentiating a heat transfer plate from a channel is extremely important and fundamental to the analysis of PHEs.
Description: Evaporative coolers in many applications give greater heat transfer than air coolers. Perhaps the greatest advantage the evaporative cooler can offer over dry air cooling is a lower temperature heat sink.
Description: The equations allow quick determination of a heat exchanger’s achievable performance when certain data are known. Knowing an exchanger’s configuration — co-current or counter-current, inlet conditions for both hot and cold sides, effective surface area and transfer rate — achievable outlet temperatures are easily approximated.
Description: A seal cooler directly affects performance of a mechanical seal and extends its mean time between failures (MTBF). The heat removal and thermosiphoning capabilities of the cooler, its hydraulic characteristicstics, as well as its ability to remove trapped air (ventability) influence mechanical seal performance. API Standard 682, Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps
Description: The history of Graham Corporation, how it started and perfected heat transfer and vacuum products and invention of the Heliflow Heat Exchanger.
Description: Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which state acceptable rates for VOC emissions. Condensation technology allows reclamation of VOCs, providing an economic incentive when costly product is reclaimed as a condensate.
Description: Ultra low, cryogenic, temperature applications for heat exchanger design for use in pharmaceutical and specialty chemical applications.
Description: Detail design considerations involved in selecting steam ejector/liquid ring pump vacuum system for crude tower service. Materials of construction, energy utilization, packaging, system performance and flexibility will be addressed
Description: Steam-jet vacuum systems combine ejectors, condensers and interconnecting piping to provide relatively low-cost and low-maintenance vacuum pumping. These systems operate on the ejector-venturi principle, which relies on the momentum of a high-velocity jet of steam to move air and other gases from a connecting pipe or vessel.
Description: Selecting and optimizing steam jet ejectors and condensers for any vacuum level required for the process industries
Description: How ejectors work, where they are used, why they are the most economical vacuum equipment selection
Description: How steam vacuum refrigeration works and the advantages to consider over the use of a mechanical chiller system
Description: How liquid ring pumps work and what devices are used to control the operation of a liquid ring pump system for proper operation
Description: How to optimize and select the most economical steam ejector, process condenser, liquid ring pump system for capital cost and utility cost.
Description: How steam jet ejectors work and the differences in selecting a pilot plant unit and a full scale production unit
Description: How ejectors work and properly operating ejectors and condensers is important in maximizing vacuum tower gas-oil yield
Description: How steam ejector systems work and troubleshooting tips for crude vacuum tower systems to keep them running with minimal down time.
Description: How liquid ring vacuum pumps work and the factors to consider when sizing a liquid ring vacuum pump for the application.
Description: How to determine pressure drop, condensate leg height and other piping considerations for proper vacuum system design and operation
Description: This paper attempts to show the effects on an ejector system when various operating parameters are modified in order to improve vacuum column cut point. Ejector system design is directly impacted by cut point set for the atmospheric column that precedes a vacuum column. It is noted that increasing cut point for the atmospheric column results in added stripping steam to the vacuum column, consequently, a larger ejector system is required.
Description: How to properly install a liquid ring vacuum pump, determine what accessories and controls are necessary and troubleshooting tips.
Description: How steam ejectors work and an analysis of ejector systems and troubleshooting tips with reference to case studies.
Description: How to properly design steam ejector and process condenser systems as commercially available software does not accurately model system design performance
Description: How ejectors work and the advantages of using pressurized air motive to operate an ejector instead of pressurized motive steam
Description: Cost savings by considering the use of a variable frequency drive for a liquid ring pump system.
Description: A complete understanding of ejector system performance characteristics can reduce the time and expense associated with troubleshooting poor crude vacuum distillation unit (CVDU) performance.  Variables that may negatively impact the ejector-system performance of vacuum-crude distillation units include utilities supply, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions.
Description: Real world ejector system performance limitations uncovered during routine performance surveys. Corrective action undertaken to improve performance is documented and discussed in detail. Principles from the initial article are used as the tools to define the cause of a particular limitation and the eventual solution.
Description: Different types of vacuum pumps, piston, vane, dry, lobe, liquid ring, ejector, condenser, are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of each type is provided
Description: Essential processes in the production of natural fats and oils and derivative oleochemicals are performed under vacuum, i.e., at a pressure below atmospheric. Such processes, including solvent extraction, degumming, bleaching, interesterification, fractionation, winterization and deodorization, are supported by ejector systems
Description: Precondensers reduce condensible vapor loading to vacuum systems, allowing for smaller vacuum systems with lower capital and operating costs.  More of the process chemicals can be recovered, too, which reduces waste treatment and lost chemical costs.  Precondensers can also improve process reliability by blocking liquid or solid carryover from entering the vacuum system.
Description: How to get more vacuum out of a liquid ring vacuum pump by using an atmospheric air operated ejector
Description: Condenser exhauster or venting service by using liquid ring vacuum pumps and how to determine if the pump is cavitating in this application
Description: Vacuum pumps and systems are commonplace across a tremendous range of industries.  Once the essential principles are understood, the possibilities for application become apparent.  The process and economic selection criteria for vacuum systems used throughout many market sectors, and an explanation on how they can lead to the optimum choice of pump.
Description: Carefully evaluating your process and its operating parameters will help you specify a vacuum condenser that maintains a satisfactory vacuum level. Failing to take these 10 tips into account may result in improper vacuum levels, compromising product quality and production rate
Description: Cooler steam can reap hot benefits. Weigh all the options so you don't get burned.
Description: A deodorizer vacuum system utilizing freeze-condensation technology offers advantages not available with conventional ejector systems.
Description: Placing a freeze condenser ahead of an ejector system offers several advantages.
Description: Sizing of steam surface condensers based on turbine steam flow which includes steam inlet velocity, cooling water flow and pressure drop, air leakage for design, fouling factors to use, ASME, HEI, and TEMA design codes, gas removal system design and space limitations for the condenser size.
Description: Supercritical fluids exist when any substance is at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. Heliflow Heat Exchangers are an ideal option for handling these extreme conditions.
Description: Mechanical seals installed on pumps handling medium and high temperature fluids require cooling of the seal fluid to ensure proper seal operation. Heliflow Heat Exchangers are proven, efficient, and cost-effective seal coolers.
Description: High pressure applications are when the operating/design pressures exceed 1,000 psig. The Heliflow Heat Exchanger becomes an attractive alternative to the traditional shell & tube type as the pressures exceed this threshold.
Description: Best practices and opportunities to deliver reliable ejector systems performance and reduce performance risk.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Crude oil refining and petrochemical industries make extensive use of condensers that operate under vacuum. Distillation is the most common process using these condensers, either as a process precondenser ahead of an ejector system, or as an intercondenser within an ejector system...
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: For decades there has been a marked uncertainty regarding the operation of steam jet ejectors in downstream facilities. This article reviews the functionality, performance and considerations of this important technology.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Ejector systems are critical to the final concentration of a urea solution.
Author: Johnson, Eric
Description: A system of compressors powered by surface condensing steam turbines is inherent in the operation of a typical ethane cracker unit. These turbines run by extracting work from high-pressure steam, while a surface condenser condenses the turbine's exhaust to both maximize compressor horsepower and recover valuable condensate.
Author: Johnson, Alicia
Description: Steam Surface Condensers are critical equipment in a fertilizer plant, and can directly impact plant throughput and product quality. This article reviews key design decisions that affect capital cost and outlines operating variables that can negatively impact performance reliability.
Author: Johnson, Eric
Description: Steam ejector vacuum systems are reliable and require little maintenance. However, when preventive or corrective maintenance is required, ensuring it is done correctly is imperative.
Author: Lines, James
Description: Working with supercritical fluids poses challenges when designing heat exchangers. Some practical tips and precautions are presented in this article.
Author: Johnson, Eric & Alicia
Description: Set refinery profitability goals